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20 brids Diseases in the world

At present, the global poultry industry is still expanding. The output value of 1996 has increased by about 6%, which is slightly lower than the growth rates of 1994 and 1995. In Asia and South America, poultry meat production is relatively large due to cheap feed prices and increased demand. In contrast, the demand for eggs has been static in recent years, and egg consumption and hand production in some countries have even declined. Nevertheless, the demand for eggs has recently increased again, mainly from the needs of the egg processing industry, of which Asia has the highest growth, which is estimated to be about 6%. As the growth of the poultry industry will increase the number of poultry raised, often some areas where the poultry industry has been developed will increase their scale of breeding. As a result, more poultry are kept in the same location or in a special place. This high-density breeding method will increase the urgency of poultry, and more effort must be spent on biosecurity and disease control.
        In recent years, the international poultry industry has faced a situation where diseases are difficult to control. This situation is related to poor sanitation and management, but most of the factors are caused by the emergence of drug resistance and more aggressive virus strains. In particular, the susceptibility to diseases is also increasing. Taking broilers as an example, breeding companies are facing the problem of leukemia again, and they do not know where the pathogen came from. Although chicken ascites and chicken infectious anemia are world-famous; however, some traditionally important diseases still exist, such as infectious bronchitis, infectious Fahrenheit bursitis, Marek's disease, Newcastle disease, coccidia Disease and mildew disease. Most of these diseases cause worldwide problems, and other diseases cause more problems in some specific areas.
        Recently, Europe, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East have all been threatened by the 4/91 variant of infectious bronchitis and have caused considerable impact. The poultry industry in South America and Southwest Asia has also been attacked by adenoviruses, and is often accompanied by Hydropericardium Hepatitis Syndrome (HHS), Spiking Mortality Syndrome (SMS) and inclusion body hepatitis. India and Pakistan also suffer from these diseases, and they are often accompanied by outbreaks of infectious bursitis or Marek's disease. In addition, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is also a frequently found avian exotic disease. This disease is quite famous in the turkey industry and is also found in chicks in South Africa, Europe and the United States. Faced with new virus strains and new disease threats, the poultry industry must develop a set of effective strategies to combat the disease and conduct many related research work to understand why viruses, bacteria, parasites and other pathogens have become more aggressive and Resistance and learn more about how to control the pathogen again.
        Based on the format of the British Veterinary Poultry Association guidelines. David Parson, MRCVS has updated the definition of avian disease generally from A to Y in 1997. This poultry disease dictionary contains some suggestions on how to treat the disease, but basically it is best to seek appropriate guidance from a qualified veterinary consultation agency when the disease occurs. Some medicines are prescribed by doctors and have different regulations in different countries. Readers must pay attention to and comply with relevant laws and regulations in that country. In most countries, Newcastle fowl fever and highly pathogenic poultry influenza are listed as important infectious diseases. When a reasonable suspicion is suspected that they may be infected, the relevant authorities must be notified.

I. Acute death syndrome (Heart attack)
         Acute heart failure is often found in the three weeks before slaughter, and some well-developed poultry are often accompanied by fatty liver and kidney syndrome. The mortality rate is about 0.5%. The cause may be related to the balance of potassium, sodium, and chloride ions in the body. Recent reports show that imbalances in ions may cause ventricular fibrillation.

2. Adenovirus infection (Adenovirus)   
        Symptoms of decreased egg production are caused by a particular adenovirus and have been labeled 127 or BC14. This disease can cause a sudden drop in egg production rate, and produce faded, thin or soft-shelled eggs, and it is difficult to return to the original egg production rate. Chicken flocks may have a loss of appetite or diarrhea. The disease can be diagnosed by serological methods. There is no cure, but effective vaccines are available to control it. Clinically, this disease is not common because most chickens have been vaccinated. Some other adenoviruses can cause other diseases (see Inclusion body hepatitis and Marble spleen disease). There are many non-pathogenic virus strains of adenovirus.

3. Aflatoxicosis
        Mycotoxin poisoning is usually caused by toxins produced on feed by Aspergillus flavus. There will be burnout, decreased appetite and other symptoms when poisoning, and sometimes neurological symptoms such as posterior arch retension, and often ascites. Turkeys and ducks are particularly sensitive to the disease.

4, amyloidosis (Amyloidosis)
        It usually occurs in adult ducks. Although the disease may cause internal organ disease, the cause is unknown.

5, infectious serositis (Infectious; Serositis; Anatipestifer infection)
        The disease is caused by Riemeralla anatipestifer (formerly Pasteurella) and occurs in young ducklings. The disease can cause severe neurological symptoms such as head tremor or head and neck torsion. There will also be tears, loose feathers, and green stools, with a mortality rate of about 25–75%. Treatment is available with Streptomycin and Sulphonamides.

6. Aortic rupture
        Major blood vessel ruptures cause internal bleeding, causing sudden death of sick animals. The disease mostly occurs in heavier turkeys and broiler breeders, and occasionally in pheasants, young turkeys and ordinary laying hens. This disease usually occurs in well-growing individuals, and there is currently no effective treatment and prevention method.

7. Arizona infection
        This disease is a turkey disease caused by salmonella. The turkey herds will be crowded together with symptoms such as chin, listlessness, and stool attachment around the anus. When it occurs in a young turkey that has just hatched, its mortality rate is as high as 50%. Occurs in older turkeys, sometimes with twisted heads and blindness. Nitrofurans (currently banned in the UK) are effective in treating this disease. In disease control, it is necessary to eliminate infected breeding turkeys. This disease is rare now.

8, ascites
        Occurs from a few days of age to before slaughter. The cause of death is mainly due to the accumulation of ascites in the abnormal heart, liver and kidneys, and sometimes in the early stages due to lung damage. Although there is no effective treatment at present, improving the temperature, light, ventilation and feed of the feeding environment can alleviate the symptoms.

9, Aspergillosis
        The disease is caused by inhalation of mold spores, which can cause respiratory disease and cause breathing difficulties. Occasionally, cases of brain infections are seen. The disease will occur in young hatchlings due to contaminated mold spores. In addition, other birds will also be infected from contaminated litter and grain, and there is no cure. Turkeys and bird-watching are more susceptible to the disease.

10, Avian clostridial infection
        Certain species of Clostridium cause disease in poultry, including Botulism, Necrotic enteritis, Avian maligant oedema, Gangrenous dermatitis, yolk sac infection Disease (Yolk sac infection) and umbilical inflammation. Clostridium botulinum is characterized by causing paralysis of the neck muscles, causing the neck to sag. Its pathogenesis is caused by ingestion of toxin-contaminated feed, and may also be caused by botulinum botulinum entering the body through intestinal proliferation and production of toxins. Corrupted broiler carcasses are an important infection in broiler farms source. Cl. Perfringens directly causes damage to the small intestine wall or is accompanied by coccidial infection to cause damage to the intestinal wall, causing necrotizing enteritis. Adding Penicillin to drinking water can effectively treat this disease.

11, E. coli disease (Avian coliform infections; Colibacillosis)
        E. coli often causes secondary infections of any day-old poultry, especially young broilers and turkeys. When this disease occurs, the growth situation is often poor, causing an increase in feed meat exchange rate (FCR), coupled with damage to the breathing and body cavity, which further reduces the value of processing and utilization. Its mortality cannot be ignored, and antibiotics can be administered during treatment.

12, poultry encephalomyelitis (Avian encephalomyelitis; Epidemic tremors)
        The disease is caused by Picornavirus. It has a high mortality rate and occurs in chickens within five weeks of age. Sick chickens will have neurological symptoms and decrease egg production. The main mode of transmission is horizontal infection. To control the disease, vaccines should be given to breeders or hens that are not laying eggs at the age of nine to ninety-four.

13, poultry influenza (Avian influenza)
        Infection with this disease can cause a wide range of symptoms, such as depression, decreased egg production, and respiratory symptoms. Severity depends on the virus strain, and its mortality varies, but strong virus strains cause high mortality and are legally notifiable infectious diseases. There is no vaccine or treatment.

14, poultry malaria (Avian malaria)
        Plasmodium mosquitoes in tropics have bitten poultry and brought them to the blood. Will cause chickens to die, lay eggs drop, there is no effective treatment. The disease is not harmful in Britain.

15.Avian mycoplasmosis
        Mycoplasma gallispecticum, M. iowae, and M. meleagridis are all ovum-infected, and there are cases of horizontal infection. M.synoviae is spread like M.gallispecticum. Clinically, it can cause respiratory infections, decrease egg production, increase feed exchange rate, reduce hatching rate, lameness and aggravate coliform disease. M. meleagridi infection is confined to turkeys. Urgency and other diseases such as IB and ART can activate the situation of non-dominant infection of the disease, and then aggravate the disease. Although the infection can be controlled, the disease cannot be cleared with antibiotics. The disease can be diagnosed using a blood test. At present most of the breeder farms are clean farms of A.synoviae, M.gallispecticum and M.meleagridis.

16.Avian rhinotracheitis (ART; Avian rhinotracheitis)
        Also known as TRT and Swollen head syndrome (SHS). Its pathogen is avian lung virus (pneumovirus), which can infect turkeys and chickens from ten days of age to the end of egg production. Bubble-like secretions can be seen in the corner of the eye, swelling of the suborbital sinus, and inflammation of the trachea. Infecting breeders will reduce egg production and hatchability. Secondary infections cause severe Airsaculitis, often associated with E. coli before slaughter. The disease is widely distributed. When it occurs in broilers, torticollis (Torticollis) is often seen. This point must be distinguished from Newtown chicken disease. There is no effective treatment for this disease, but active or non-activated vaccines can be given to prevent the disease.

17, poultry salmonellosis (Avian salmonellosis)
        There are two main pathogens, S.pullorum and S.gallinarum, which cause pullorum disease and Fowl typhoid, respectively. The disease can be transmitted by vertical (egg infection) and horizontal methods. Control must use serological methods to detect positive chickens. At present, these two diseases have been eliminated in the United Kingdom, and there are other serotypes of Salmonella, of which S.typhimurium and S.enteritidis are the most common. They cause sepsis and death in young birds and are often accompanied by coliform-like disease The disease. The disease must be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Among them, S.typhimurium and S.enteritidis are an important zoonotic infectious disease, which may cause human death. Septicemia birds are at risk for managers or operators. It can be treated with antibiotics when it occurs, and currently there is an inactivated Enteritidis vaccine for prevention and control. There are currently regular statutory tests in the UK for breeder farms and hatcheries. The classification of Salmonella has been improved. According to the new taxonomy, there are only two types of Salmonella, namely S.enterica and S.bongori.

18.Avian staphylococcus infections
        Occurs in adult poultry, especially breeders. Symptoms may include sepsis, arthritis, Bumblefoof, etc., and may also have icteric dermatitis. Antibiotics can be used when they occur, but treatment is difficult.

19.Avian tuberculosis
        The disease is rare in modern poultry farms, but is still common in some traditionally raised poultry farms. It causes progressive weightlessness and eventually leads to weight loss and death. There is no cure, and the hygiene of the poultry farm must be controlled.

20, vitamin deficiency (Avitaminosis)
        The abnormal intake and utilization of vitamins leads to a decrease in the overall activity of sick animals, which leads to illness. The symptoms are very extensive. Today's feed formula contains balanced and stable vitamins, so vitamin deficiency is rare.

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