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Bird flu

1. What is the flu?
Influenza, referred to as influenza, is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses. The most common flu attacks are sudden, chills, chills, high fever, body temperature can reach 39 to 40 ℃, with systemic symptoms such as headache, sore muscles and joints, extreme fatigue, and loss of appetite, often with sore throat, dry cough, and congestion Runny. If there are no complications, the symptoms improve to days after the onset, but it usually takes to weeks for cough and physical recovery Mild patients, such as the common cold, have mild symptoms and can recover in to days.

2. What is bird flu?
Avian influenza mainly refers to infectious diseases caused by influenza viruses in birds. Avian influenza viruses can be divided into highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, low pathogenic avian influenza viruses and non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are currently only found in H5 and H7 subtypes. Due to the species barrier, the avian influenza virus can infect humans only by accident. It has been confirmed that avian influenza viruses that infect humans include H5N1 H9N2  H7N2  H7N3 H7N7 H5N2 , and H10N7 . The symptoms are different and can be expressed as the respiratory tract. Symptoms, conjunctivitis, and even death. Human infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus often manifests as respiratory symptoms such as high fever and often develops into pneumonia, even acute respiratory distress syndrome and systemic organ failure, or even death.

3. What is the H7N9 avian influenza virus?
Influenza viruses can be divided into three types: A (A), B (B), and C (C). Among them, influenza A can be divided into 1-16 subtypes according to the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein ( HA ), and can be divided into 1-9 subtypes according to the virus neuraminidase protein ( NA HA Different subtypes can be combined with different subtypes of NA to form up to 144 different influenza viruses. Birds, especially waterfowl, are natural hosts for all these influenza viruses, and H7N9 avian influenza virus is one of them. The H7N9 subtype influenza virus was previously only found in poultry, and outbreaks of poultry had occurred in the Netherlands, Japan, and the United States, but no human infection was found.

4. What is the current situation of H7N9 bird flu epidemic in China ?
2013 Nian Yue Ri 18 when China has diagnosed 28 cases of human infection of H7N9 bird flu, died 9 cases. The cases were distributed in Shanghai ( 13 cases, 5 deaths), Jiangsu Province ( 8 cases, 1 death ), Zhejiang Province ( 5 cases, 2 deaths) and Anhui Province ( 2 cases, 1 death ). This is the first case of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza in the world. [Update]

5. What are the main clinical manifestations of H7N9 avian influenza infection cases?
Patients generally show flu-like symptoms, such as fever, cough, and low sputum, which can be accompanied by headaches, muscle aches, and general malaise. Severe patients develop rapidly, manifested as severe pneumonia, body temperature mostly persists above 39 ℃, dyspnea occurs, and may be accompanied by hemoptysis and sputum; acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, multiple organ failure, etc. can rapidly progress and even die.
People currently infected with H7N9 recognize the clinical features of avian influenza still limited, viral infections spectrum is unclear, 28 cases had 1 case showed flu-like symptoms, suggesting mild cases there may be a certain percentage of the virus infection can cause other clinical The performance is unclear. It is uncertain whether a recessive infection exists.
As more case information accumulates, awareness of the disease will change. [Update]

6. What about global human infection with the H7 influenza virus?
From 1996 to 2009 , the Netherlands, Italy, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom have reported human cases of influenza A H7 infection. The virus subtypes are H7N2 H7N3, and H7N7 . The clinical manifestations are mainly conjunctivitis and mild upper respiratory infections. Previously, no cases of H7 subtype influenza virus infection were found in China .

7. How does the H7N9 virus compare to previous H1N1 , H5N1 and other seasonal influenza cases?
Of the 28 confirmed cases, 25 are severe pneumonia ( 9 have died), suggesting that the virus has strong virulence.
In view of the multiple cases of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza in many places and in a short time , it is suggested that the H7N9 avian influenza virus may have the ability to spread from birds to humans more easily than H5N1 . However, according to the available information, there is no evidence that the virus has the ability to spread from person to person. [Update]

8. What is the source of infection in this case of human infection with H7N9 bird flu?
The H7N9 influenza virus infected by humans belongs to avian influenza virus in virus biology. Most of the human influenza viruses infected with H7 subtypes found in the past came from birds. According to an epidemiological investigation of existing cases, exposure to the live poultry market is a risk factor for disease, and poultry carrying the virus, its excreta, and secretions may be the source of human infection with the H7N9 avian influenza virus. The health and agriculture sectors will jointly conduct more epidemiological investigations to identify relevant risk factors. [Update]

9. Can the H7N9 avian influenza virus be transmitted from person to person? The incidence of infection in close contacts of the case?
There is currently no evidence that the virus is capable of sustained human-to-human transmission.
According to the relevant provisions of the "Human Infection H7N9 Avian Influenza Prevention and Control Plan (First Edition)", the health departments of Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui implemented medical observations of all close contacts of the cases. As of 4 Yue 9 days, according to medical observation and preliminary laboratory test results have been confirmed cases of close contacts, yet found no human infection has been confirmed H7N9 bird flu close contacts of cases after the onset of infection disease.
For clustered onset and some cases without animal exposure, further investigation is needed to confirm whether there is limited human-to-human transmission. Because of the onset of clustering, it may be transmitted from person to person due to continuous close contact, or it may be a source of environmental infections such as birds, which come together or separately. [Update]

10. How to prevent H7N9 bird flu infection in daily life [New]
At present, there is evidence suggesting that live bird market exposure is a risk factor for human infection with H7N9 avian influenza. Poultry carrying the virus, its excreta, and secretions may be the source of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza virus. In daily life, pay attention to the following:
1 ) Avoid direct contact with live birds, birds or their droppings, especially sick (dead) birds in daily life; if you have contacted, you should wash your hands with soap and water as soon as possible. Children should avoid direct contact with poultry and wild birds. If you find sick (dead) poultry or livestock, do not handle it yourself and report it to the relevant department.
2 ) Do not purchase live poultry for slaughter, do not touch or eat diseased (dead) poultry, livestock meat, and do not purchase fresh, live, frozen poultry and their products without quarantine certificates.
3 ) Raw poultry, animal meat and eggs must be cooked thoroughly.
4 ) Pay attention to food hygiene. In the process of food processing and eating, it is necessary to separate raw and cooked foods to avoid cross-contamination. Chopping boards, knives and containers that handle raw poultry and animal meat cannot be used for cooked food; Wash hands thoroughly after meat and eggs.
5 ) A healthy lifestyle is very important to prevent this disease. Usually you should strengthen physical exercise, take more rest to avoid overwork; do not smoke, wash your hands frequently, pay attention to personal hygiene, cover your nose and nose when sneezing or coughing.
6 ) If you have fever and respiratory symptoms, you should wear a mask and see a doctor as soon as possible, and remember to tell your doctor if you have traveled or had a history of contact with poultry before the onset of illness. Regular treatment and medication should be under the guidance of a doctor.

11. Is it safe to eat meat or poultry and pork products? [New]
It is safe to eat meat that is normally processed and cooked. Influenza virus will lose its activity when hot enough. Cooking food at normal temperature (food should be uniformly heated at least 70 degrees Celsius ) can kill the virus. In outbreak areas, meat products are safe to eat when properly processed and cooked. However, animals that are ill or dead at the time of discovery are not edible.

12. Is there a vaccine against influenza (H7N9) virus?
There is no human vaccine against the H7N9 avian influenza virus.
However, preparations for vaccine development have begun. [Update]

13. What is the current treatment?
Gene sequence analysis showed that the virus was sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors against influenza viruses. According to the experience of other types of influenza antiviral therapy, the use of neuraminidase inhibitor antiinfluenza virus drugs early after the onset may be effective, but the specific treatment of human newly discovered H7N9 avian influenza virus infection still needs to be observed the study.

14. What are the main ways in which human cases of H7N9 avian influenza are found in China [New]
At present, human infection with H7N9 avian influenza is mainly detected through the following methods : First, through the unexplained pneumonia surveillance system that has been established in China to cover all types of medical institutions at various levels throughout the country, the definition of all monitored cases that meet the human infection with H7N9 avian influenza surveillance Corresponding specimens were collected from various cases, and relevant laboratory tests including H7N9 were carried out to diagnose or exclude H7N9 infection cases. The second is that in provinces where human infection with H7N9 bird flu has occurred, H7 nucleic acid has been added to the testing items for routine influenza-like case surveillance. Test to find possible mild or early cases; in other provinces, for non-seasonal influenza viruses detected in routine surveillance of influenza-like surveillance cases, further testing is required to determine whether the infection is caused by a new H7N9 virus subtype.

15. Is the public at high risk of contracting the H7N9 avian influenza virus?
As the disease is a new infectious disease, humans have limited knowledge of it. There is already evidence that human infection of the H7N9 avian influenza virus is highly likely from poultry. At present, the distribution of the virus in China's poultry is unknown, especially if the bird is infected with the H7N9 virus. The surveillance work will be strengthened in the future. New cases may occur continuously or in new areas.
At present, only a small number of cases have been found in local areas, and close contacts after the onset of cases have not been found by medical observation. Although H7N9 avian influenza virus has the ability to spread from birds to humans more easily than H5N1 , the virus has not been found to have the ability to continue to spread from person to person. The risk of public infection is different under different circumstances in different regions, but in general, the public is infected with the virus The risks remain low.
Because there are still unclear or uncertain situations, the public's risk of infection needs to be dynamically assessed. [Update]

16. Is the medical staff at high risk of contracting the H7N9 avian influenza virus?
There is no clear evidence of H7N9 person-to-person transmission. No cases of infection have been found among the 28 medical staff admitted to the hospital. However, since medical staff have more opportunities to contact patients with infectious diseases than the general public, it is recommended that medical staff be diagnosed and treated. Take necessary protective measures during the patient's procedure. When receiving suspected or confirmed cases of H7N9 avian influenza, standard prevention plus droplet transmission prevention and exposure prevention should be taken. [Update]

17. Who needs special protection? What are the specific requirements? [New]
Workers who are in close contact with poultry, including those engaged in breeding, sorting, transporting, marketing, slaughtering, immunization work, and treatment of sick and dead birds, as well as professionals who carry out terminal disinfection of the relevant places need special protection. The special protection requirements are to wear ordinary work clothes, a protective layer of protective clothing (isolation clothing), protective masks, disposable medical latex gloves, boots or sterilizable protective feet. Pay attention to washing your hands to reduce the chance of infection.

18. Will this flu virus cause an influenza pandemic? [New}
If any animal-derived influenza virus can infect humans, and if the virus has effective human-to-human ability, it could theoretically cause an influenza pandemic. At present, there is no evidence that the H7N9 avian influenza virus has the ability to sustain human-to-human transmission. When there is still uncertainty as to whether it will cause a pandemic, it is still necessary to continue to strengthen virus surveillance, epidemic surveillance and dynamically assess risk

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