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Nutrients needed in chickens feeds (Layers and Broiler)

The formula design of chicken feed is simply that different types of chickens need different nutrition. Reasonable selection of breeding standards should be based on the nutrition required by them. At the same time, it is necessary to understand the nutritional characteristics of various feed ingredients to meet the needs of different types of chicken Nutrition needs to give full play to its production performance. And get a lot of products with good quality and low cost. So how do you specifically design the formula for chicken feed? Let's take a look together.

1. Determine breeding standards. Based on the special standards for broilers in China's chicken breeding standards, refer to NRC and other standards, and adjust them appropriately according to chicken breeds, feed resources, feeding management conditions, local conditions, and processing methods of ingredients.
  2Use stage feeding management technology. The breeding standards of broiler chickens in various countries in the world are listed according to the stage (weeks of age) of their different nutritional levels to ensure that the nutritional level provided is closer to the actual needs of broiler chickens, to more effectively promote the growth of broilers, and to economically Use protein feed.
  3. The right amount of dietary energy concentration. Broilers have a certain ability to adjust the feed intake of diets with different energy concentrations, eat less feeds of high-energy diets, and eat more feeds of low-energy diets. The dietary metabolizable energy concentration of broiler chickens is more than 12.86MJ / kg. Limited to conditions, it can be reduced to the value of China's breeding standards. When performing stage feeding, the energy concentration of each stage can be equal or increasing, but the decreasing trend should be avoided as much as possible. Adding fat can effectively increase the energy concentration. The added levels are: broiler chicken 1%, broiler chicken 1.5%, and broiler chicken 2% [1]. Generally, laying hens need to be matched with a daily diet of 100 ~ 120g; broilers are 130 ~ 150g [2].
  4. High-level protein feedstock. Under the premise of dietary amino acid balance, it is more appropriate to increase the crude protein in the diet to 22% in the early stage and to 18% in the later stage.
  5. Balance between various amino acids in the diet. When the energy concentration of the formula is higher or lower than the standard, the amino acid level of the diet should be increased or decreased according to the amino acid to energy ratio. For insufficient amino acids, nutritional value can be enhanced through the complementary effects of multiple protein feeds, or they can be supplemented directly with synthetic amino acids.
  6. Sufficient mineral elements and excessive vitamins. Calcium and phosphorus must be adequately supplied in the form of compounds that facilitate absorption (such as monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, etc.). Vitamins and trace elements are regulatory substances. The numbers listed by China and the NRC are the minimum requirements. The content in the feed can be used as a safe amount, and the provisions in the standard can be used as added amounts. However, due to the unstable activity of vitamins, it can be higher than the standard 50-100% or higher in practical applications, especially vitamin A. At present, the post-spraying process technology can be used to maintain vitamin activity and reduce vitamin additions.

  7. Use of pharmaceutical additives and enzyme preparations. The addition of antibiotic drugs should be strictly controlled 1 to 2 weeks before sale to avoid residues. The introduction of exogenous enzyme preparations and probiotics will help digestion and absorption.

Layers can be divided into three stages: brooding period, rearing period and laying period. As the age increases, energy concentration and protein levels decrease.
  1.0 to 6 weeks is the brooding period. The nutritional needs of chickens during this period are high energy and high protein, and full-price nutrition. When designing the formula, feeds with low crude fiber content, high nutritional value, good quality, and easy digestion should be selected. Add necessary anticoccidial drugs and anti-white peony drugs according to the breeding method and chick source.
  The breeding period is from 2.6 weeks of age to the beginning of labor. As laying hens, do not overweight before laying. In order to control the growth rate, the dietary nutrition index value should be relatively low. The metabolizable energy level per 1kg diet during this period was 11.72 MJ at 7 to 14 weeks of age and 11.30 MJ at 15 to 20 weeks of age. The crude protein level should not be too high. The protein levels of 7 to 14 weeks and 15 to 20 weeks are 16% and 12%, respectively. Under the condition of amino acid balance, the protein level can be reduced to 10%. The calcium level in the broiler chicken diet should not be too high. When the egg production rate reaches 5% 2 weeks before the start of production, the calcium level can be increased to 2%. When the egg production exceeds 5%, the calcium content can be increased to the corresponding level. . Feed for bred chickens can use agricultural and sideline products, such as bran, distiller's grains, dregs, and green feed and other raw materials with high crude fiber content and low energy value to control weight.
  3. Laying period. This period can be divided into three stages according to the egg production rate: the egg production rate is less than 65%, the egg production rate is 65-80%, and the egg production rate is greater than 80%. Two-stage system can also be used in production, that is, the egg production rate is greater than 80% and less than 80%. Pay attention to the stability of feed mix and crude protein content during peak egg production. According to feeding standards, the crude protein level should be 16.5%, and it can be increased to more than 17% if necessary. The calcium level in the diet should reach 3.3 to 3.5%, and the available phosphorus should reach 0.33 to 0.35%. In addition, the raw materials of compound feed require good quality and rich nutrition, and the indexes of essential amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements can be appropriately increased. After the peak period of egg production, the protein level of the diet must not decrease too quickly, and its feed intake is limited to 90-95% of the free feed intake. The calcium level should be adjusted appropriately. After 40 weeks of age and when the summer temperature exceeds 35 ° C, the calcium level can be increased from 3.3 to 3.69% to 3.7 to 3.99%, but it cannot exceed 4%. The design of feed formula for laying hens should be based on the production level of the chickens, on the one hand, the chicken breeds (such as light breeds, brown shell egg breeds, etc.), egg size, egg shell thickness, and environmental climate And other factors. Light-weight white-shell laying hens and medium-sized brown-shell laying hens can be used universally, but special attention should be paid to the supply levels of protein, pyridoxine, vitamin B1, and vitamin E in brown-shell laying hens, and sufficient methionine and cystin should be provided at the same time Amino acid. As far as possible, avoid using rapeseed cake cypress in brown shell laying hen feed to avoid affecting egg quality

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